Intelligence is the global capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment, as defined by David Wechsler. The range of cognitive functions includes understanding, self-awareness, learning, logic, emotional knowledge, reasoning, creativity, planning and problem-solving.
Types of Intelligence:
Various types of intelligence described by specialists are as given below.
When the person is able to analyze or evaluate situations and arrive at a decision about how to respond to it, is said to be analytical intelligence. The person is able to analyze the problems and arrive at solutions. Traditional IQ tests usually measure this type of intelligence.
The person is able to think out of the box to create innovative and novel ideas. Problem-solving, imagination and innovative thinking is the highlight of this type of intelligence.
The person is able to respond well to the day-to-day activities and seems to have the best solutions and ways to do things. The person is able to adapt well to any nuances in the routine or changes in the environment.
Salovey and Mayer define emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Emotional intelligence involves four aspects – self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. An emotionally intelligent person is able to understand their own emotions and also perceive other’s emotions by their expressions and behavior.
The person can use logic and abstract thinking abilities to solve problems in novel situations, without any prior knowledge or memory of the situation.
It is the ability to use the previously-acquired knowledge, facts or skills to a given situation. This theory suggests that intelligence is composed of various different abilities like logic, knowledge, attention, memory, etc that interact and work together to solve a given problem.
Some common intelligence tests:
A specific set of questions that measures the memory and problem-solving skills determines the mental age of the child. Some children are able to give solutions to advanced questions that children of older age were able to solve. Correlation of mental and chronological age is done for the estimate of intelligence of the child.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale:
This test measures five aspects of cognitive ability – knowledge, quantitative reasoning, fluid reasoning, working memory and visual-spatial processing. Responses are recorded in both verbal and non-verbal forms. Intelligence Quotient is given in the form of a single number, the average being 90 to 109 and High Average being 110 to 119. Scores of 120 to 129 is Superior and more than 130 is considered to be Very Superior.
WISC and WAIS
David Wechsler developed a tool for testing intelligence with the theory that intelligence involved many different mental abilities. WISC – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – is an IQ test that measures intelligence and cognitive ability in children between ages 6 to 16years. WAIS – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – measures cognitive abilities of older adolescents and adults in terms of perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory and processing speed. Both the tests have been standardized and updated.
Aptitude vs Achievement test:
The aptitude tests measures the student’s potential to learn and achievement tests measure the content that the student has already learned as school subjects.
Reliability of Intelligence tests:
Most of the commonly used Intelligence Tests are reliable. Repeatedly taking the test does not improve the score and the scores are same when taken at different points of time. The tests have been developed, standardized and adapted to fit into the current times.