Intraocular pressure is the pressure in the eye caused by the fluid present in the eye. Tonometry is the measurement of the intraocular pressure. Increased pressure in the eye increases the risk of glaucoma. Tonometers measure the pressure in the eye in terms of millimeters of mercury, just like measuring blood pressure. Normal range for intraocular pressure is 10-20 mm Hg.
Ocular hypertension is the condition when intraocular pressure of more than 21 Hg in one or both eyes at two or more consecutive office visits. Optic nerve and glaucoma is also tested to rule out any abnormalities. Also, signs of other ocular diseases are checked which cause increase in eye pressure.
Causes of intraocular hypertension:
Low ocular pressure:
Although a less common type and causing less concern, it needs to be attended when the condition leads to disturbances in vision. Pressure below 5mm Hg is considered to be ocular hypotony. The condition may lead to swelling in the cornea, damage to macula, cataracts and other problems. Many people with hypotony report blurry vision or other problems.
Glaucoma and intraocular pressure:
Ocular hypertension may not be a disease by itself. It seems to be an indication for onset of glaucoma. It is usually accompanied by optic nerve damage or vision loss.
Exams and Tests for intraocular pressure:
Treatment for intraocular hypertension:
Topical medicines (directly into the eye) is started if symptoms like blurred vision, pain or seeing halos around lights are reported by the person along with high pressure measured in 3-4 visits to the ophthalmologist.